|Vaccine Symbol||Protects Against||Precautions||Possible Side Effects|
|DtaP||diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough||Fever control for children with past history of seizure. Wait to take vaccine if moderately ill.||Mild fever, redness, swelling, and soreness (associated with whooping cough portion)|
|Hep A||Hepatitis A||Wait to take vaccine if moderately ill. Do not continue with 2nd dose if child has severe allergic reaction||Soreness at injection site, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite|
|Hep B||Hepatitis B||Wait to take vaccine if moderately ill.||Soreness at injection site, low-grade fever|
|HIB||Severe bacterial infections such as meningitis and pneumonia||Wait to take vaccine if moderately ill.||< 25% get redness, warmth, swelling at injection site. Fever and irritability are also possible|
|IPV||Polio||Wait to take vaccine if moderately ill. Do not take secondary doses if child has severe allergic reaction||Minor pain, redness at injection site|
|MMR||Measles, Mumps, and Rubella||Wait to take vaccine if moderately ill. Do not take if child has allergies to gelatin (Jell-O) or previous dose of MMR||Mild reactions fairly common. Low grade fever, swelling in neck or cheeks, mild rash|
|Prevnar||Pneumonia, Blood Infections, Ear infections, Meningitis||Do not take if severely allergic to diphtheria-toxoid-containing vaccine||Redness, swelling, tenderness at injection site, fever, decreased appetite, irritability|
|Td||Booster shot for diphtheria and tetanus||See DtaP||See DtaP|
|Varivax||Chickenpox||Wait to take vaccine if moderately ill.||Soreness or swelling at injection site, fever, mild rash, seizure, pneumonia (very rare)|
It’s inevitable that your baby will be sick at one point in their life or another. As a parent, understanding this and staying calm when your baby does get sick is important.
Here’s a few tell-tale signs of when you should call your Pediatrician:
- Loss of appetite: If your baby refuses multiple meals, it’s time to call your Pediatrician.
- Fever: Mild fevers are common and usually harmless, but keep an eye on the thermometer. If your baby is younger than age 3 months, contact the doctor for any fever. If your baby is age 3 months or older and has an oral temperature lower than 102 F (38.9 C), encourage rest and offer plenty of fluids. Contact the doctor if your baby seems unusually irritable, lethargic or uncomfortable. If your baby has an oral temperature of 102 F (38.9 C) or higher, give your baby acetaminophen (Tylenol, others). Contact the doctor if the fever doesn’t respond to the medication or lasts longer than one day.
- Changes in mood. If your baby is lethargic or unusually difficult to rouse, tell the doctor right away. Also let the doctor know if your baby is persistently irritable or has inconsolable crying jags.
- Diarrhea. Contact the doctor if your baby’s stools are especially loose or watery.
- Vomiting. Occasional spitting up is normal. Contact the doctor if your baby spits up large portions of multiple feedings or vomits forcefully after feedings.
- Dehydration. Contact the doctor if your baby doesn’t wet a diaper for six hours or longer, the soft spot on top of your baby’s head seems to sink, or your baby cries without tears or has a dry mouth without saliva.
Article Source: MayoClinic.Com
Parents often come to me with questions about developmental milestones for their pre-school aged children. The chart below lists all the physical, social, cognitive, and language skills for children ages 2 through 5:
|Age 2||Age 3||Age 4||Age 5|
|Speaks about 50 words||Speaks 250 to 500 or more words||Answers simple questions||Understands rhyming|
|Links two words together||Speaks in three-and four-word sentences||Speaks in complete sentences||Uses compound and complex sentences|
|Uses some adjectives (big, happy)||Uses pronouns (I, you, we, they) and some plurals||Uses prepositions (under, beside, in front)||Uses future tense|
|Speaks clearly enough for parents to understand some of the words||States first name||Speaks clearly enough for strangers to understand||States full name and address|
|Becomes aware of his or her identity as a separate individual||Imitates parents and playmates||Cooperates with playmates||Wants to be like friends|
|May become defiant||Takes turns||Tries to solve problems||Follows rules|
|Becomes interested in playing with other children||Expresses affection openly||May have a best friend||Understands gender|
|Separation anxiety begins to fade||Easily separates from parents||Becomes more independent||Wants to do things alone|
|Begins to play make-believe||Asks “why” questions||Becomes involved in more complex imaginary play||Uses imagination to create stories|
|Begins to sort objects by shape and color||Correctly names some colors||Prints some capital letters||Correctly counts 10 or more objects|
|Scribbles||Copies a circle||Draws a person with two to four body parts||Copies a triangle and other geometric patterns|
|Finds hidden objects||Understands the concepts of same and different||Understands the concepts of morning, afternoon and night||Understands the concepts of time and sequential order|
|Walks alone and stands on tiptoe||Walks up and down stairs, alternating feet||Stands on one foot for at least five seconds||Stands on one foot for at least 10 seconds|
|Climbs on furniture and begins to run||Kicks, climbs, runs and pedals a tricycle||Throws ball overhand, kicks ball forward and catches bounced ball most of the time||Hops, swings and somersaults|
|Builds a tower of six or more blocks||Builds a tower of nine or more blocks||Dresses and undresses||May learn to ride a bike and swim|
|Empties objects from a container||Manipulates small objects and turns book pages one at a time||Uses scissors||Brushes own teeth and cares for other personal needs|
Help your children develop good physical activity habits at an early age by setting a good example yourself.
Practice these heart-healthy habits with your kids:
- Limit screen time (television, movies, videos and computer games) to less than 2 hours a day. Substitute the rest of leisure time with physical activity.
- Plan family outings and vacations that involve vigorous activities such as hiking, bicycling, skiing, swimming, etc.
- Give your children some household chores that require physical exertion, keeping in mind their levels of strength, coordination and maturity. Mowing lawns, raking leaves, scrubbing floors and taking out the garbage not only teach responsibility but can be good exercise.
- Observe sports and activities your children like, then find out about lessons and clubs. Some children thrive on team sports; others prefer individual activities. Some activities, like tennis and swimming, can be enjoyed for a lifetime and are much easier to learn during childhood.
- If it’s safe to walk or bike rather than drive, do so. Use stairs instead of elevators and escalators. Increase the distances you and your children walk.
- Stay involved in your child’s physical education classes at school. At daycare, make sure the kids exercise at least 20 minutes a day. Ask about frequency of classes and activity, class size, curriculum (instruction in lifetime fitness activities as well as team sports should be emphasized), physical fitness assessments, qualifications of the teacher (should hold appropriate certification in physical education and be an appropriate role model for students). Physical fitness should be measured at the beginning and end of each year, and goals should be established for each child. Encourage your school board to emphasize skills students can use for the rest of their lives.
- Discourage homework immediately after school to let children find some diversion from the structure of the school day. Kids should be active after school and before dinner.
- Choose fitness-oriented gifts — a jump rope, mini-trampoline, tennis racket, baseball bat, a youth membership at the local YMCA or YWCA. Select the gift with your child’s skills and interests in mind.
- Take advantage of your city’s recreation opportunities — from soccer leagues to fun runs. Check out the various camps or organizations like the Sierra Club that sponsor outdoor activities such as camping, hiking trips and bird watching.
- Free your infant from mechanical restraints as much as possible. Strollers and playpens are high on convenience but low on activity potential. Try to unleash your diapered dynamo whenever and wherever he or she can safely move around.
- When your children are bored, suggest something that gets them moving, like playing catch or building a snowman in the yard.
Kids learn by example, and whether you realize it or not, your kids are emulating you so it’s important to set good examples by establishing healthy habits early on.